Beatrice Nnedinso Eze


This study investigated the use of synchronous and asynchronous approach to learning for effective education in Catholic Secondary Schools in Otukpo, Benue State. It was anchored on Fishbein’s Expectancy Value Theory of 1975. This theory advocates that the amount of effort that students are willing to expand on learning is determined by the degree to which they expect to succeed, as well as the degree to which they value their learning outcome; and this determines their academic success. It was guided by four research questions investigating the course delivery models employed by teachers; how synchronous and asynchronous approaches are blended for effective learning; the tools used for synchronous and asynchronous learning and ways in which synchronous and asynchronous learning can be blended for education that is more effective. The study hypothesizes that the blending of synchronous and asynchronous learning has significant difference on the effectiveness of education in Catholic Secondary Schools in Otukpo, Benue State. It used convergent parallel mixed methods research designs. The qualitative data was collected using interview guide, while questionnaires were used to collect quantitative data. The qualitative data was presented in narrative forms while the quantitative data was analyzed with statistical package and descriptively presented in frequencies and percentages. The findings of the study revealed that the teachers in the five sampled schools had limited experience of facilitating synchronous and asynchronous approaches to teaching and learning. Thus, the study recommends that the principals should organize workshops and seminars that would help to prepare both teachers and students to be equipped with the competence and skill sets they need to benefit from the resourcefulness of blending synchronous and asynchronous approaches to teaching and learning in the modern context.


Synchronous, Asynchronous, Contemporary Context, Instructional Materials, Teaching, Learning.

Full Text:



Animba, I. E. and Edeh, J. O. (2021). Instructional Material: A Pre-Requisite for Effective Teaching and Learning Among Secondary School Students in Enugu Education Zone. International Journal of Management, Social Sciences, Peace and Conflict Studies (IJMSSPCS), 4(2), 131 – 142.

Dorsah, P., & Alhassan, A. G., (2021). Synchronous Versus Asynchronous: Pre-Service Teachers’ Performance in Science Formative Assessment Tests Open Access Library Journal, 8(4), 1 – 15.

Ekpoafia, C. A. (2018). Strategies for Improving Secondary School Teaching and Learning Environment in Rivers State. International Journal of Innovative Social & Science Education Research, 6(3): 21 – 28.

Kazeem, Y. (2020). Nigerian schools are being forced to rethink their digital limits and education models in a pandemic. Retrieved from

Kumar, S. (2021). 4 Parameters to Build a Successful Blended Learning Program. Retrieved from

Kyle Gulau, (2021). How to Best Leverage Synchronous vs. Asynchronous Learning.

Mick, C. S. & Middlebrook, G. (2015). Asynchronous and Synchronous Modalities. Encyclopedia of Distance and Online Learning.

Muhammed, A. Y., Lawal, A. D., Suleiman, S. and Ahmed, A. (2021). The impact of teaching methods on the performance of geography students in some chosen public secondary schools in Zaria local government area, Kaduna State, Nigeria. Journal of Social, Humanity and Education, 1(2), 143 –155.

Nwigwe, N. (2020). Availability and Utilization of Instructional Materials for Teaching of Indigenous Language (Igbo) in Public Junior Secondary Schools in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Journal of Education and Practice, 11(5), 19 – 23.

Ogbonna, C. G., Ibezim, N. E., & Obi, C. A. (2019). Synchronous versus asynchronous e-learning in teaching word processing: An experimental approach. South African Journal of Education 39(2), 1 – 15.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Beatrice Nnedinso Eze




 ISSN (PRINT):    2734 - 2522

 ISSN (ONLINE):  2734 - 2514






Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.