Akinola Moses Owolabi, Moyosore Alade (PhD), Vivian Ifeoma Onwuka


Security is a precondition of a peaceful society, growth and development. Without reliable information from the media, it will be difficult for the citizens and those in positions of authorities to be aware of problems and issues that need active considerations like threats to national security. Therefore, since the media remain the sources of information and vital links between the government and the people, they are the pivot of the maintenance of law and order in the society which is a sine qua non for security of lives and property and by extension national security. The realization of the foregoing prompted this study which aims at evaluating the patterns of media reportage of threats to national security in Nigeria. Agenda setting theory was adopted as framework of the study with content analysis as the design. The population is three hundred and sixty-two editions of the chosen newspapers while the sample size is fifty-two editions of the papers. Purposive sampling technique was used in choosing newspapers for the study while systematic sampling technique was used in choosing editions used. The analysis of the data was quantitative and simple percentages were used. Findings revealed that the Nigeria media frequently published reports of issues constituting threats to national security in Nigeria even when they did not give such reports due prominence in terms of page rating and in-depth analysis. Further finding indicated that the Media were more reactive than pre-emptive in the reportage of threats to national security in Nigeria. The study recommends that Nigerian media should take its social responsibility task more seriously most especially its surveillance function. They also have to be more pro-active in the reportage of threats to Nigeria’s national security and revive the culture of investigative journalism that will unearth the perpetrators of the heinous acts, their sponsors and moles in government as well as the various security agencies, if any, with a view to curbing, even if not eradicating daily threats to national security in Nigeria. 


Patterns, Media Reportage, Security Threats, National Security, Nigeria.

Full Text:



Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria (as Amended with Fourth Alteration, 2018)

Adebajo, K. (2020). Timeline: Nigeria’s brutal history of violence and deaths. https//

Adebajo, K. (2022). Fact check: is Nigeria truly ranked world’s second most unsafe country? fact/check/:/ is- nigeria-truly-ranked-second-most unsafe-country-?

Adebayo, I. (2020, December 20) Nigeria’s growing kidnap industry. Daily Independence Newspaper

Adegoke, N (2016). Improving government security policy for sustainable development in Lagos State. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa. Clarion University of Pennsylvania, Clarion, Pennsylvania 18 (4,206).:1520-5509.

Adesoji, A &Alimi, S, (2012). Nigerian press and the challenge of private newspaper ownership: a study of the Nigerian Tribune. Journal of African Media Studies. A(3):357-376

Agba, P. C. (2003). International communication principles, concepts, and issues in C. S. Okunna (ed.) Teaching mass communication. Enugu: New Generation Boooks

Aman, D. (2022) Relationship between media and communication.

American National Security Strategy 1999 (Deluxe Hardbound Edition). USA: Homer Illiad & Odyssey

Badmus, I. A. (2005). Nigeria’s national (in) security: the threat analysis, peace research. The Canadian Journal of Peace and Conflict Studies. Canadian Mennonite University 37(1).

Baran, S. J. (2010). Introduction to mass communication, media literacy and culture. Second Edition. New York: McGraw Hill

Berelson, B. (1952). Content analysis in communication research. Glencode III: The Free Press

Bernescut, B. (2017). What is the relationship between communication and information to the media?

Chandra, S and Bhonsle, R. (2015). National Security: Concept, Measurement and Management. Strategic Analysis 39 (4): 337-359. DOI:10.1080/097000161.2015.1047217

Eme, O. I., Nwachukwu, T. S., Olise, C. M. (2017). Security threats in Nigeria: thematic exposition. International Journal of Philosophy and Socio-psychological Sciences. 3(1)

Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1999 Constitution (as Amended with Fourth Alteration, 2018).

Katsina, A. M. (2012). Nigeria, security challenges and the crisis of development, towards a new framework for analysis. International Journal of Developing Societies. 3, 107-116

Kofi, A. (2005). Large freedom: towards development security and human rights for all. New York: United Nations Publication

Longley, R. (2021). National security: definitions and examples. https//

Lule, J. (2012). Globalization and media global village of Babel. Rowman & Littlefield 0-7737-5639-6

McNamara, R. (1968). Essence of security. London: Hodder and Stoughton

Medelyan, A. (2021). Coding qualitative data: how to code qualitative research.

National Communication Commission (2011). Assessed on 12/7/2022

Ngwube, A (2013). Threats to security in Nigeria. Global Journal of Political Science. 10(3)

Nwosu, C. J., and Okeke, A. O. (2021). Assessment of newspapers pattern of reportage of public accountability issue in Nigeria. Journal of Communication and Media Studies. 2(1)

Odeniyi, S. (2022, June 22). 2,079 die in 68 mass killings – report. The Punch.

Odeniyi, S. (2022, June 14). 913 killed, 265 abducted in May – Report. The Punch

Okunna, C. S. (2010). Introduction to mass communication. Enugu: New Association

Okwori, A. S. (1995). Security and deterrence: towards alternative deterrence strategy for Nigeria in the 21st Century and Beyond. Journal of the Nigeria Defense Academy, Kaduna. 5. 19-28

Osisanya, S. (n.d). National security versus global security. UN Chronicle.

Rosler, P. (2017). Agenda-setting: history and research. The International Encyclopedia of Media Event.

Souza, G. R. (2015). Misunderstanding national security: cost of insecurity. Master thesis submitted to the Faculty of American Public University. Charles Town, West Virginia.

Stephen, W (1992). Security, modernity, and ecology: Dilemmas of post-cold war security discourse. Alternatives. 17

Tafa, P. (2021). Increasing security threats dangerous for Nigeria’s future by Matthew Ogune in the Guardian. December 11, 2021

Taylor, R. (2022). A Short History of Media. Assessed on 10/7/2022

Tersoo, A. (2018). Brief history of radio in Nigeria.

Tukur, S. (2016). Expose corruption and make money as Nigerian government adopts new whistle blowing policy. Premium Times. 21/12/2016.

Tyoden, S. G. (2005). State security in Nigeria’s Fourth Republic. In A. T. Gana and Y. B. Omeke (Eds), Democratic rebirth in Nigeria. 1999-2003, Abuja: AFRIGOV


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Akinola Moses Owolabi, Moyosore Alade (PhD), Vivian Ifeoma Onwuka




 ISSN (PRINT):    2734 - 2522

 ISSN (ONLINE):  2734 - 2514






Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.