Alphonsus Ekejiuba Oguzie (PhD), Victor Ndubuisi Ordua (PhD), Grace Chinyere Nnadi (PhD), Queendaline Oluchukwu Boulife


This study investigated the counselling strategies for handling low self-esteem among secondary school students in Anambra State. Three research questions guided the study. The study adopted the descriptive survey design, and the population comprised of two hundred and fifty-seven (257) respondents from all the six education zones of the state which was studied entirely without sampling because the number was manageable by the researchers. The instrument used in collecting data for the study was a structured questionnaire titled Counselling Strategies for Handling Low Self Esteem Questionnaire (CSHLSEQ). The instrument was dully validated by experts in the Department of Guidance and Counselling and Measurement and Evaluation. The findings from the study showed that the causes of low self-esteem among secondary school students in Anambra State are sibling maltreatment, peer relationship, parenting style, inability to cope academically, parental socio-economic status, physical challenge, comparison with others, and preferential treatment by parents and teachers  However, the findings showed that gender, rejection from society and expectation from parents are not the causes of low self-esteem among secondary school students. The findings of the study equally showed that the consequences of low self-esteem are poor academic achievement, social isolation, feeling of worthlessness, drug abuse, health problems such as headache and fatigue, cultism, suicidal ideation, school dropout, aggressive behaviour, shyness and social maladjustment. Finally, the results of the study revealed that the counselling strategies for handling low self-esteem among secondary school students in Anambra State are cognitive restructuring, self management technique, assertiveness training technique, social skill training, sensitivity training, the use of bibliotherapic materials, mindful meditation, exposure therapy, modelling technique, relaxation therapy and enrolling low self esteem students into social groups. It was recommended among others that Guidance Counsellors should ensure keen and objective observation on students’ behaviours and guard against such behaviours that could be detrimental to students’ self-esteem. 


Counselling, Strategies, Low self-esteem, Students, Anambra State.

Full Text:



Ahmavaara, A. & Houston D. (2014). The effects of choosing schooling and self-concept on adolescents academic aspiration. Retrieved from Journal of Educational Psychology, 77, 613-632.

Ahmed, H. (2013). The low level of academic achievement among high school students from teachers and students perspective. Journal: Surra Man Raa, 8, 1-38.

Ashamu, O.A. (2008). Effects of two counselling approaches on the self-concept of junior secondary school students. Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 6(2), 2-10

Baharudin, R. & Zulkefly, C. (2009). Relationship with father and mother, self esteem and academic achievement. American Journal of Scientific Research, 6, 86-94.

Breldenbush, H. (2007). Enhancing self-esteem among girls and boys in secondary schools. Journal of Urban Education, 24(4), 432–436

Coleman, D. (2010). Oxford Dictionaryof Psychology. Oxford

Emeji, J.C. (2018). Effect of self management technique on low self-esteem among secondary school students in Imo state. Unpublished masters thesis, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka.

Emiler, (2012). Self esteem: The cost and causes of Low Self-Esteem. New York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.

Erol, R. & Orth, U. (2011). Self-Esteem development from age 14 to 30 years: A longitudinal study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101(3), 607-619.

Gazzinga, M. & Heatherton, T. (2010). Psychological Science. New York : W.W. Norton

George, I.N. & Ukpong, D.E. (2013). Contemporary social problems in Nigeria and its impact on national development: Implication for guidance and counselling services. Journal of Educational and Social Research, 3(2), 167-173

Grafford, D. (2009). The correlation between extracurricular activities and self-esteem. withlowself-esteem.aspx

Guindon, G. (2006). Individual difference variables associated with self‐worth protection. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 63(3), 62-68

Hossani, S.M. & Mugenda G. (2010). Forecasting between self esteem, parenting and gender among secondary school students in Shiraz. Unpublished thesis, University of Shiraz, Iran.

Jones, F.C. (2012). Low self-esteem: Indispensable self-esteem in human development. Chicago: Defender Publishers.

Kim, S.K. & Won, D.N. (2011). Definitive factors between general children in the care of parents and those in the care of grandparents to their emotional and behavioural problems. Journal of Community Welfare, 22, 1–20

Lawson, J. (2014). What is low self esteem.

Martin, N., Marsh, F., McLerney, J., Green, I. & Dowsen F. (2012). The foundation of self esteem. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.

Mcleod, S. A. (2012). Low self esteem.

Mukiri, C. & George, A. (2014). The relationship between self esteem and academic performance among secondary school students in Ruiru Constituency.

Naderi, H. & Abdullahi, R. (2010). Self esteem, gender and academicachievement of undergraduate students. American Journal of Scientific Research, 3,26-37.

Norcross, J. C., Santrock, J. W., Zuckerman, E. L., Sommer, R. & Campbell, L. F. (2008). Authoritative guide to self-help resources in mental health. (2 ed.). New York: Guilford Publications.

Nwokolo, C.N. & Oguzie, A.E. (2021). Relationship between secondary school students’ self-esteem and their attitude towards examination malpractice in Imo state. Sapientia Global Journal of Arts, Humanities and Development Studies, 4(1), 33 – 44.

Nworgu, G. (2015). Educational research: Basic issues and methodology. Ibadan Nigeria: Wisdom Publishers.

Obidigbo, G. (2011). Healthy Self concept, health personality .paper presented to Anambra State students Association. ESUT chapter

Oguzie, A.E. & Nwokolo, C.N. (2021). Relationship between secondary school students’ academic achievement motivation and their attitude towards examination malpractice in Imo state. International Journal of Management, Social Sciences, Peace and Conflict Studies, 4(1), 73-84.

Okafor, E.O. Obi, J.S.C. & Oguzie, A.E. (2018). Relationship between student’s self esteem and academic achievements in Imo state. African Journal of Multi-disciplinary Research, 1(1), 268-309.

Onyekuru, B. & Obidigbo, G. (2012). Understanding human behaviour. Enugu: Godwin Sages.

Pepi, A., Faria, L. & Alesi, M. (2006). Personal conceptions of intelligence, self-esteem and school achievement in Italian and Portuguese students. Retrieved from Proquest

Prihadi, K. & Chua, M. (2012). Students' self-esteem at school: The risk, the challenge, and the cure. Journal of Education and Learning, 6(1), 1-14.

Pullman, H. & Allik, J. (2008). Relations of academic and general self esteem to school achievement. Journal of Personality and Individual Differences, 45(6), 559-564

Rosenberg, M. & Owens, T.J. (2007). Low self-esteem people: A Collective Portrait. In T.J. Olwens. S. Stryker, & N. Goodmanm (Eds.), Extending self-esteem theory and research (Pp. 400-436). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Scott, S. (2008). The medicalization of shyness and low self-esteem: from social misfits to social fitness. Sociology of Health & Illness, 28(2), 133-153.

Shimmack, A. & Diener, E. (2013). Self and self esteem: Theoretical foundations and their implications for research. Journal of Human Development, 20,129-140

Silverstone, P.H. &Salsali, M. (2008). Low self-esteem and psychiatric patients: Part I–the relationship between low self-esteem and psychiatric diagnosis. Annals of General Psychiatry, 2(6), 2-21

Ugorji, F. N (2013). Self esteem, depression and stigmatization as determinants of educational attainment of pregnant adolescents in Delta State Nigeria. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 3(3), 154-160.

Uslu, M. (2013). Relationship between degrees of self-esteem and peer pressure in high school adolescents. International Journal of Academic Research, 5(3), 117 - 122.

Wang, F. (2008). Self-esteem and cognitive development in the era of the childhood obesity epidemic. Obesity Revision, 9(6), 615–623.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Alphonsus Ekejiuba Oguzie (PhD), Victor Ndubuisi Ordua (PhD), Grace Chinyere Nnadi (PhD), Queendaline Oluchukwu Boulife




 ISSN (PRINT):    2734 - 2522

 ISSN (ONLINE):  2734 - 2514






Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.